This is from 1988. It really was TV worth watching.
It’s one of the hazards of concert-going. You’re deeply engrossed in the music. Comes a diminuendo to pianissimo and beyond. You scarcely breathe as the music falls to the limit of audibility.
From three seats over comes a quiet snorfff. The gentleman there has fallen asleep.
It’s hard to imagine a greater insult to a composer. Yet there’s a very well known work which was designed to have this exact effect — well, maybe. Or so legend has it.
The story comes from Bach’s first biographer, Johann Nicolaus Forkel (1749 – 1818).
Johann Gottlieb Goldberg was one of Bach’s students. He was attached to the household of the former Russian ambassador to the electoral court of Saxony, Count Keyserlingk. The count often traveled to Leipzig. Goldberg usually accompanied him and would visit with Bach for a lesson.
Count Keyserlingk had health problems. Too often, his nights were filled with pain rather than sleep. On those nights he would call for young Goldberg, who would play the harpsichord for him in a room adjoining his bedchamber.
Could Bach compose some keyboard music for him? Perhaps Bach could make the pieces "of a soft and somewhat lively character." Then they might cheer Count Keyserlingk up on his sleepless nights.
Good story, so far. The first question is — assuming it’s true (and we’ll get to that in a moment), is the count asking for music to divert his mind when he can’t sleep, or music that might lull him to sleep?
The usual interpretation of this passage is the former. I might think that too if I were a keyboard player. Trying to sort out these challenging pieces at the harpsichord is definitely not going to lull you to sleep, and playing them on the piano is even more finger-twisting.
The fact that Count Keyserlingk is (according to Forkel) asking to be cheered, not lulled or soothed, is further evidence for the pianists’ side.
But note what Forkel says the count asked for: music "of a soft and somewhat lively character." Is he asking for pieces that are both soft and lively, or does he want some pieces to be soft and others lively?
Well, could "soft" be just a mistranslation? I don’t think so. Forkel writes sanft. I’m no German expert, though I speak a little, so I asked my old friend Herr Langenscheidt. Here are some possible English equivalents he suggests: soft, gentle, mild, calm, sweet, and smooth. In my book that doesn’t leave a lot of room for negotiation about what Keyserlingk was looking for.
You can’t say that the Goldberg Variations’ opening aria doesn’t fit that description — though some might call it a bit melancholy instead — and there are plenty of variations in the set which could easily fall into the "soft" category.
Forkel never says that Goldberg played the entire set of 30 variations from beginning to end. On the contrary, he tells us that "when the sleepless nights came, he [Count Keyserlingk] used to say: ‘Dear Goldberg, do play me one of my variations.’" (Emphasis added.) Don’t you think that a reasonable and thoughtful Goldberg would try to choose an appropriate variation for that night’s situation?
Forkel also says that "Bach thought he could best fulfill [the count's] wish by variations, which, on account of the constant sameness of the fundamental harmony, he had hitherto considered as an ungrateful task." The implication is pretty clear here: Bach thought that variations, as a musical form, tended to be dull. One interpretation of this sentence might be that Bach took this as a challenge — to make his Goldberg Variations stimulating and engaging. But you could just as easily take it to mean that Bach used variations because they (or at least some of them!) were more likely than other forms to send the count into dreamland.
Either way, he seems to have pleased the count. Forkel tells us that Count Keyserlingk never tired of his variations. He rewarded Bach with a golden goblet, filled with 100 louis-d’or. A louis d’or was a gold coin with a weight of 6.75 ounces. Today that much gold would be worth a cool $935,550.
It’s a fine tale, but is it true? Good question. I have to admit, there’s evidence to the contrary.
First, a big one: no other source has yet appeared to corroborate Forkel’s yarn.
Nor is there in the published variations any hint of a dedication to either Count Keyserlingk or Goldberg. You’d certainly expect one, especially given the count’s rather generous payment. But Bach’s title page says only Keyboard practice, consisting of an aria with different variations for the harpsichord with two manuals, prepared for the enjoyment of music lovers by Johann Sebastian Bach, Polish royal and Saxon electoral court composer, director and chorusmaster in Leipzig.
Third, the inventory of Bach’s estate lists no golden goblet.
And finally — most damning in the view of generations of pianists who have struggled mightily with the Goldberg Variations — at the time the Goldberg Variations appeared, Johann Gottlieb Goldberg was only 14 years old.
It’s pretty tough to argue with the lack of corroboration, but remember that Forkel got much of his biographical information directly from two of Bach’s sons, Wilhelm Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel, who seem to have been generally pretty reliable. The lack of a dedication is telling, though; it definitely runs against common practice at the time.
However, the goblet could have been sold, lost, or given away by 1750. And Goldberg’s age? At 14, Mendelssohn was composing symphonies and Mozart created a full length opera (Mitridate, Re di Ponto). It’s remarkable what a talented kid can accomplish when he’s not distracted by Wii and Facebook, eh?
All that said, until some further documentation turns up — a dedicated copy from the count’s library, for example — I’m afraid we’ll have leave Forkel’s tale of the Goldberg Variations’ origins and use in the "legend, possibly apocryphal" department. But the next 3am when your sheep-count gets into five figures, why not see what the Goldberg Variations will do for you? I’ve listed a few recordings below, and there are many, many more in print.
The Goldberg Variations by Yo Tomita
Further listening (recommended recordings of the Goldberg Variations):
Gustav Leonhardt, harpsichord (1976) stocked item at Amazon Germany
Pierre Hantai, harpsichord (1993) at Arkivmusic
Glenn Gould, piano (1955) at Arkivmusic
Murray Perahia, piano (2000) at CD Universe
Note: The vendor links above are provided solely for your information. WKSU doesn’t endorse these suppliers, nor does it receive any financial benefit from your use of the links.
This article is an updated version of one originally published in WKSU Classical on 20 August 2009.
The War of the Austrian Succession sapped Europe’s prosperity and will from 1740 to 1748. As soon as the ink was dry on the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, England was ready for a celebration. It was set for 27 April, 1749, and it was to be a magnificent party with fireworks and music provided by none other than the great Handel.
For some reason, though, apparently King George wasn’t too keen on the idea of having any music at all! Or so we read in a series of rather huffy letters which flew among Handel, the king’s Master General of Ordnance (who had the say-so over military music), and Charles Frederick, who had been assigned the remarkable title of Comptroller of his Majesty’s Fireworks for War as for Triumph. However, once Handel had assured the King that the music wouldn’t be overly long, "he was better satisfied."
But he "hoped there would be no fiddles."
There were none.
Handel did try a few times to sneak a few violins into the band, but in the end (perhaps placing some significant value on his own head) he bowed to George’s wishes — and to practicality, since for outdoor performance in such a situation, strings wouldn’t really have added much. His ensemble was as "warlike" as they come. And it was big: 9 trumpets, 9 horns, 24 oboes, 12 bassoons, 3 pair of kettledrums, and an unspecified number of side drums. What a magnificent amount of volume it must have made!
A public rehearsal of Handel’s music on 21 April in Vauxhall Gardens drew a record crowd of 12,000, causing a 3-hour traffic jam on London Bridge. Maybe the tie-up was more newsworthy than the music; the press tells us much more about the rehearsal than about the actual performance at Green Park on the 27th. However, one report identifies Handel’s music by its alternate name — A Grand Overture of Warlike Instruments.
Though we know it today as Music for the Royal Fireworks, it appears that Handel’s music didn’t actually play during the fireworks display. That was a good thing for the musicians. The display was apparently a bit disappointing: "The rockets and whatever was thrown up into the air succeeded mighty well; but the wheels, and all that was to compose the principal part, were pitiful and ill-conducted, with no changes of coloured fires and shapes: the illumination was mean, and lighted so slowly that scarce anybody had patience to wait the finishing." But more significantly, one of the pavilions — almost exactly where Handel’s band had been playing the hour before — caught fire during the fireworks and burned to the ground.
Not one to let good music lie, Handel programmed his Grand Overture of Warlike Instruments on many other occasions, including a performance at the Foundling Hospital a month later.
And yes, he often added strings.
This article was originally published in WKSU Classical on 19 June 2009.
The Cleveland Orchestra announced today (30 April) that violinist Alexandria Preucil has been named an assistant concertmaster. She fills the position opened when violinist Lev Polyakin retired last October (2012). The orchestra’s other assistant concertmaster is Yoko Moore.
Music is in Preucil’s blood: she’s the daughter of the Cleveland Orchestra’s concertmaster, William Preucil. She joined the orchestra’s violin section in 2008. She holds a bachelor’s degree from the Cleveland Institute of Music.
Previously, Preucil was concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra Youth Orchestra. She has also held posts as assistant concertmaster with the Akron Symphony Orchestra and the Canton Symphony Orchestra.
Deciphering Cleveland Orchestra Player Hierarchy at cleveland.com
In the years when I was discovering classical music, one of the first recordings of the Bach cello suites I heard was Janos Starker’s for Mercury Records.
Starker was famed for his Bach; in fact he recorded the suites several times. His reserved, focused style suited Bach.
Still, it wouldn’t be right to call Starker a "Bach cellist." He was equally at home in Romantic and contemporary literature, warmly expressive when the music called for it – but he was always tasteful, never indulging in excess. Starker played with complete respect for the composer’s notes and a clean, spare vibrato. He spurned – even ridiculed – the extravagant body language of many a modern cellist as “self-aggrandizement.”
Janos Starker was born in Budapest on 8 July 1924. His talent emerged early; at age seven he met Pablo Casals and shortly thereafter found himself studying at the Franz Liszt Academy.
Starker’s family was Jewish. During the war they were sent to a prison camp near Budapest. He and his parents survived, but 2 brothers were never accounted for. He believed they were shot by Nazi guards.
In 1948 conductor Antal Dorati, who had emigrated from Hungary to the US seven years earlier, encouraged Starker to follow his example. Indiana University wrote to US immigration officials, indicating that they were willing to hire him.
Starker promptly took a gig playing first chair for Dorati’s Dallas Symphony. From there he moved on to the Met Orchestra under Fritz Reiner. When Riener went to Chicago, so did Starker. They later had an infamous tiff, Reiner throwing his baton at Starker when he missed a cue.
Despite their letter, Starker didn’t actually join Indiana University’s faculty until 1958. But working with students had always been important to Starker. "I was born to be a teacher," he said in a 2011 interview. In fact, Starker took on his first student when he was 8 years old (the student was 6).
Though he could be hair-raising in the studio*, passing on his prodigious technique and spot-on intonation to young cellists was just part of what he did. "I cannot perform without teaching," he said, "and I cannot teach without performing." The act of explaining his technique to students gave Starker deeper insight into it.
Starker remained on the Indiana faculty until shortly before his death, attracting multiple generations of young cellists to Bloomington.
Janos Starker was an inveterate smoker – 3 packs a day for much of his life. A cigarette was his last companion before he strode on stage, and the first he greeted after the concert. Starker once bailed on a performance of the Elgar concerto when the concert hall’s management refused to let him smoke backstage.
In fact, he preferred to take his smokes on stage with him when possible. Starker liked to give shirtsleeve recitals, dividing his stage time between playing and opinionated musical commentary (often about other musicians), punctuated by drags on his ever-present cigarette and sips from a glass of scotch.
Janos Starker died Sunday at a hospice in Bloomington. He is survived by his second wife, Rae; a daughter from his first marriage, Gabriella Starker-Saxe; daughter Gwen Starker Preucil (wife of the Cleveland Orchestra’s concertmaster); and 3 grandchildren – Cleveland Orchestra violinist Alexandra Preucil, Nicole Preucil, and J. P. Saxe.
*A joke circulated for years among cellists – reportedly told by Starker himself on occasion – goes like this: Three cellists die and ascend to the pearly gates, where they are greeted by St Peter. The first cellist requests entry into Heaven. "With whom did you study?" St Peter asks. "Leonard Rose," he responds. "Sorry," says St Peter. "I’m afraid you’ll have to go to Hell." The second cellist now steps forward. St Peter again asks the question. "Mstislav Rostropovich," comes the reply. "You too," says St Peter. " To Hell with you." By now the last cellist is really rattled. At St Peter’s inquiry he cringes and whispers, "Janos Starker?" St Peter smiles broadly. "Come on in, and welcome to Heaven! You’ve already been through Hell!"
Through Jan. 1, WKSU will offer a variety of classical and folk music programs that were created to make your holiday season brighter. Stream classical and folk holiday music online and see the complete schedule of special shows by clicking through. Or, tune-in to listen via our mobile apps.